Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2018; period: 04 (21.IV - 20.VI)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2478 Polish local districts (gminas) and, on the basis of soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought for the following crops: winter and spring cereals, maize for grain and maize for silage, rape and turnip rape, potato, sugar beet, hops, tobacco, ground vegetables, fruit shrubs and trees, strawberries and legumes (fabacea).

In the fourth reporting period, i.e. from April 21st to June 20th 2018, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The mean of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and reached -190.5 mm. In relation to the previous reporting period it has dropped by 11.5 mm.

The lowest CWB values in this sixty-day reporting period were recorded in Poznań and the surrounding area, ranging from -260 to -269 mm. A very high water deficiency ranging from -220 to -229 mm was also recorded in the Lowlands: Wielkopolska, Szczecińska, Podlaska, Greater Poland Lake District, Żarnowiecka Upland, Kodeńska Plain and Kujawy. Slightly lower values, but exceeding -160 mm were recorded to the north of the Polish Uplands, while in the southern regions of the country water deficiency was lower, from -90 to -160 mm.

In the current reporting period drought occurs in all the monitored crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Legumes (fabacea),
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Strawberries,
  • Tobacco,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Hops,
  • Potato,
  • Sugar beet.

The number of all local districts (gminas) in Poland at risk of agricultural drought (%) is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Number of local districts (gminas) at risk of agricultural drought and the share of the area at risk in the country (%)

No.Crop Number of local districts (gminas) at riskShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]
1.Spring cereals205682.97
2.Winter cereals192377.60
3.Legumes (fabacea)189076.27
4.Fruit shrubs183874.17
5.Strawberries177171.47
6.Ground vegetables159064.16
7.Tobacco149660.37
8.Fruit trees128851.98
9.Rape and turnip rape120748.71
10.Maize for grain 59223.89
11.Maize for silage 59223.89
12.Hops 89 3.59
13.Potato 42 1.69
14.Sugar beet 14 0.56

The potential area at risk of agricultural drought in Poland is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. The area at risk of agricultural drought according to crops

No.CropThe arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%]
1.Spring cereals63.14
2.Winter cereals49.36
3.Fruit shrubs48.75
4.Legumes (fabacea)47.21
5.Strawberries45.67
6.Tobacco33.76
7.Ground vegetables32.77
8.Fruit trees21.33
9.Rape and turnip rape16.77
10.Maize for silage 7.92
11.Maize for grain 7.91
12.Hops 0.69
13.Potato 0.28
14.Sugar beet 0.14

In comparison to the previous reporting period, there was a change in the number of local districts (gminas) at risk of agricultural drought - presented in Table 3.

Table 3.

No.CropPercentage
1.Rape and turnip rape+41.20
2.Fruit trees -3.10
3.Spring cereals -9.32
4.Winter cereals-10.58
5.Fruit shrubs-11.83
6.Strawberries-13.24

In comparison to the previous reporting period, there was also a change in the area of arable land at risk of agricultural drought – presented in Table 4.

Table 4.

No.CropPercentage
1.Rape and turnip rape+16.77
2.Fruit trees +4.00
3.Winter cereals +0.39
4.Fruit trees -0.69
5.Spring cereals -1.53
6.Strawberries -2.00

In the fourth reporting period, from April 21st to June 20th 2018, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. In Poland agricultural drought occurred in all voivodeships, 8 of them recorded drought in all the local districts (gminas). Drought occurred in 2056 local districts (gminas) i.e. 82.97% of all the local districts in Poland, in the area of 63.14% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in podlaskie, wielkopolskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, pomorskie, zachodniopomorskie, lubulskie, mazowieckie, warmińsko-mazurskie, łódzkie, and lubelskie voivodeships (54.7-93.9 % of arable land in these voivodeships). Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 5. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0090.94
2.lubuskie8282100.0085.12
3.mazowieckie314314100.0083.97
4.podlaskie118118100.0093.89
5.świętokrzyskie102102100.0038.59
6.warmińsko-mazurskie116116100.0059.28
7.wielkopolskie226226100.0091.97
8.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0086.04
9.lubelskie21321098.5954.73
10.pomorskie12312097.5690.32
11.łódzkie17717297.1856.41
12.opolskie715983.1011.46
13.dolnośląskie16912573.9634.71
14.podkarpackie1606641.2519.20
15.śląskie1675029.947.24
16.małopolskie1823820.882.23

In the current reporting period there was also a high risk of agricultural drought for winter cereals, recorded in all the voivodeships, in 7 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 1923 local districts (gminas) i.e. 77.60% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 49.36% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in wielkopolskie, lubuskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, pomorskie, podlaskie, zachodniopomorskie and mazowieckie voivodeships (67.6 – 84.0% of arable land in these voivodeships). Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 6. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0072.10
2.lubuskie8282100.0076.12
3.mazowieckie314314100.0067.61
4.podlaskie118118100.0068.62
5.warmińsko-mazurskie116116100.0040.30
6.wielkopolskie226226100.0083.96
7.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0068.48
8.lubelskie21320998.1243.43
9.pomorskie12312097.5669.60
10.świętokrzyskie1028886.2719.83
11.łódzkie17714682.4939.41
12.dolnośląskie16911769.2324.91
13.opolskie714563.385.37
14.podkarpackie1605635.0014.60
15.małopolskie182158.240.98
16.śląskie167137.780.37

A high risk of agricultural drought occurred also for legumes (fabacea), recorded in all the voivodeships, in 6 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 1890 local districts (gminas), i.e. 76.27% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 47.21% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in wielkopolskie, lubuskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, pomorskie, mazowieckie, podlaskie, and zachodniopomorskie voivodeships (64.8-82.5% of arable land). Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 7. Agricultural drought in legumes (fabacea)

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0069.28
2.lubuskie8282100.0073.80
3.mazowieckie314314100.0066.27
4.podlaskie118118100.0065.23
5.wielkopolskie226226100.0082.49
6.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0064.80
7.warmińsko-mazurskie11611599.1436.40
8.lubelskie21320998.1242.27
9.pomorskie12312097.5668.66
10.świętokrzyskie1028179.4116.71
11.łódzkie17713877.9734.39
12.dolnośląskie16911568.0523.57
13.opolskie714056.343.21
14.podkarpackie1605534.3813.77
15.małopolskie182116.040.62
16.śląskie16784.790.16

There was also a high risk of agricultural drought for fruit shrubs, recorded in all the voivodeships, in 6 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 1838 local districts (gminas), i.e. 74.17% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 48.75% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in wielkopolskie, lubuskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, podlaskie, pomorskie, zachodniopomorskie and mazowieckie voivodeships (68.2-84.0% of arable land). Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 8. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0073.62
2.lubuskie8282100.0074.41
3.mazowieckie314314100.0068.15
4.podlaskie118118100.0071.94
5.wielkopolskie226226100.0084.01
6.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0068.86
7.lubelskie21320998.1243.77
8.pomorskie12312097.5671.09
9.warmińsko-mazurskie11611397.4139.08
10.świętokrzyskie1027270.5913.75
11.łódzkie17712268.9333.54
12.dolnośląskie16911266.2723.88
13.opolskie712839.441.60
14.podkarpackie1605232.5013.06
15.śląskie16774.190.08
16.małopolskie18252.750.34

In the current reporting period there was a particularly high risk of agricultural drought for strawberries, recorded in 15 voivodeships, in 6 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 1771 local districts (gminas), i.e. 71.47% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 45.67% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in wielkopolskie, lubuskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, pomorskie, podlaskie, mazowieckie and zachodniopomorskie voivodeships (62.4-81.5% of arable land). Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 9. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0070.56
2.lubuskie8282100.0070.66
3.mazowieckie314314100.0063.83
4.podlaskie118118100.0068.62
5.wielkopolskie226226100.0081.46
6.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0062.40
7.pomorskie12312097.5669.66
8.lubelskie21320797.1841.59
9.warmińsko-mazurskie11611195.6934.29
10.dolnośląskie16910863.9122.14
11.łódzkie17711363.8428.78
12.świętokrzyskie1025452.949.85
13.podkarpackie1604729.3811.52
14.opolskie711014.080.68
15.małopolskie18231.650.02
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In this reporting period the risk of agricultural drought increased significantly for ground vegetables. Drought was recorded in 13 voivodeships, in podlaskie voivodeship it occurred in 100% of local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 1590 gminas, i.e. 64.16% of all gminas in the country, in the area of 32.77% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought in ground vegetables were in pomorskie, wielkopolskie, podlaskie and kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeships (50.5 to 65.2% of arable land). Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 10. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0058.99
2.zachodniopomorskie11411298.2542.61
3.lubuskie828097.5643.80
4.pomorskie12312097.5665.23
5.mazowieckie31430296.1844.16
6.kujawsko-pomorskie14413895.8350.49
7.wielkopolskie22621595.1363.12
8.lubelskie21319390.6133.02
9.warmińsko-mazurskie1169884.4818.76
10.dolnośląskie1698952.6610.90
11.łódzkie1777542.3712.79
12.świętokrzyskie1022120.592.99
13.podkarpackie1602918.126.17
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also tobacco. It was recorded in 13 voivodeships in Poland, in podlaskie it occurred in 100% of local districts (gminas). Agricultural drought in these crops occurred in 1496 local districts, i.e. 60.37% of all local district in the country, in the area of 33.76% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought in tobacco were in pomorskie, wielkopolskie, podlaskie and kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeships (60.6 to 68.2% of arable land). Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 11 Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0063.36
2.pomorskie12312097.5668.15
3.zachodniopomorskie11410793.8643.39
4.kujawsko-pomorskie14413593.7560.58
5.wielkopolskie22620892.0465.60
6.lubuskie827591.4642.58
7.mazowieckie31428189.4942.95
8.lubelskie21318787.7933.95
9.warmińsko-mazurskie1169380.1719.07
10.dolnośląskie1697142.0110.49
11.łódzkie1775631.649.33
12.świętokrzyskie1021918.632.50
13.podkarpackie1602616.255.26
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In this reporting period the risk of agricultural drought increased for fruit trees. It was recorded in 13 voivodeships in Poland, in 1288 local districts (gminas), i.e. 51.98% of all local districts in Poland, in the area of 21.33% of arable land (increase by 4% in relation to the previous reporting period).

In podlaskie voivodeship drought occurred in all gminas, in the area of 50.54% of arable land. Table 12 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 12. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0050.54
2.pomorskie12312097.5644.46
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14412989.5837.89
4.zachodniopomorskie11410087.7222.25
5.wielkopolskie22618380.9744.40
6.lubuskie826478.0526.73
7.mazowieckie31423976.1125.97
8.lubelskie21314367.1422.17
9.warmińsko-mazurskie1167463.799.27
10.dolnośląskie1695532.544.75
11.łódzkie1772916.383.56
12.świętokrzyskie1021615.690.60
13.podkarpackie1601811.252.48
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In this reporting period there was also an increase in the risk of agricultural drought for rape and turnip rape. It was recorded in 13 voivodeships in Poland, in 1207 local districts (gminas), i.e. 48.71% of all local districts in Poland, in the area of 16.77% of arable land (increase by 16.77% in relation to the previous report).

In podlaskie voivodeship drought occurred in all the local districts, while the highest percentage of arable land affected by drought was in pomorskie, wielkopolskie, and kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeships. Table 13 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeships.

Table 13. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0022.99
2.pomorskie12311996.7539.69
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14412888.8936.13
4.zachodniopomorskie1149280.7027.00
5.wielkopolskie22616673.4537.45
6.mazowieckie31422471.3418.93
7.lubuskie825870.7316.37
8.lubelskie21313161.5015.98
9.warmińsko-mazurskie1166656.906.13
10.dolnośląskie1695633.145.38
11.łódzkie1772111.861.50
12.świętokrzyskie1021211.760.46
13.podkarpackie1601610.001.13
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected maize for grain. It was recorded in 11 voivodeships in Poland, in 592 local districts, i.e. 23.89% of all local district in the country, in the area of 7.91% of arable land.

The highest number of gminas affected by drought in maize for grain was in podlaskie voivodeship, while the highest percentage of agricultural land was affected in wielkopolskie and kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeships. Table 14 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 14. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie1189479.6614.88
2.pomorskie1238266.6720.75
3.kujawsko-pomorskie1449163.1923.52
4.wielkopolskie22610847.7924.24
5.zachodniopomorskie1145346.497.18
6.mazowieckie3148326.434.48
7.lubelskie2134822.547.03
8.warmińsko-mazurskie1161916.381.48
9.lubuskie821012.200.89
10.świętokrzyskie10221.960.00
11.podkarpackie16021.250.02
12.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
13.łódzkie17700.000.00
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also maize for silage. It was recorded in 11 voivodeships in Poland, in 592 local districts, i.e. 23.89% of all local district in the country, in the area of 7.91% of arable land.

The highest number of gminas affected by drought in maize for silage was in podlaskie voivodeship, while the highest percentage of agricultural land was affected in wielkopolskie and kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeships. Table 15 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 15. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie1189479.6614.88
2.pomorskie1238266.6720.75
3.kujawsko-pomorskie1449163.1923.52
4.wielkopolskie22610847.7924.32
5.zachodniopomorskie1145346.497.18
6.mazowieckie3148326.434.48
7.lubelskie2134822.547.03
8.warmińsko-mazurskie1161916.381.48
9.lubuskie821012.200.89
10.świętokrzyskie10221.960.00
11.podkarpackie16021.250.02
12.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
13.łódzkie17700.000.00
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

In this reporting period agricultural drought affected hops. It was recorded in 6 voivodeships in Poland, in 89 local districts, i.e. 3.59% of all local district in the country, in the area of 0.69% of arable land.

The highest number of gminas affected by drought in hops was in wielkopolskie voivodeship. Table 16 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 16. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2264017.704.67
2.kujawsko-pomorskie1442315.971.76
3.pomorskie1231814.630.91
4.podlaskie11832.540.39
5.zachodniopomorskie11421.750.01
6.lubelskie21331.410.03
7.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
8.lubuskie8200.000.00
9.łódzkie17700.000.00
10.małopolskie18200.000.00
11.mazowieckie31400.000.00
12.opolskie7100.000.00
13.podkarpackie16000.000.00
14.śląskie16700.000.00
15.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00
16.warmińsko-mazurskie11600.000.00

In this reporting period agricultural drought affected also potatoes. It was recorded in 3 voivodeships in Poland, in 42 local districts, i.e. 1.69% of all local district in the country, in the area of 0.28% of arable land.

The highest number of gminas affected by drought in potatoes was in wielkopolskie voivodeship. Table 17 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 17. Agricultural drought in potato

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2262812.392.45
2.pomorskie123108.130.32
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14442.780.05
4.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
5.lubelskie21300.000.00
6.lubuskie8200.000.00
7.łódzkie17700.000.00
8.małopolskie18200.000.00
9.mazowieckie31400.000.00
10.opolskie7100.000.00
11.podkarpackie16000.000.00
12.podlaskie11800.000.00
13.śląskie16700.000.00
14.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00
15.warmińsko-mazurskie11600.000.00
16.zachodniopomorskie11400.000.00

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred in sugar beet. It was recorded in 3 voivodeships in Poland, in 14 local districts, i.e. 0.56% of all local district in the country, in the area of 0.14 % of arable land.

The highest number of gminas affected by drought in maize for grain was in wielkopolskie voivodeship. Table 18 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 18. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2262812.392.45
2.pomorskie123108.130.32
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14442.780.05
4.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
5.lubelskie21300.000.00
6.lubuskie8200.000.00
7.łódzkie17700.000.00
8.małopolskie18200.000.00
9.mazowieckie31400.000.00
10.opolskie7100.000.00
11.podkarpackie16000.000.00
12.podlaskie11800.000.00
13.śląskie16700.000.00
14.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00
15.warmińsko-mazurskie11600.000.00
16.zachodniopomorskie11400.000.00

May was very warm this year. In Wielkopolskie and Mazurskie Lake Districts the air temperature exceeded the norm by 4°C, and in the rest of the country by 3-4°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in the centre of Poland, ranging from 17 to more than 18°C, and in the cast majority of the country between 16 and 17°C. In the north the temperatures were the lowest, from 13 to 16°C.

The first decade of June was warm as well. In the western part of the country temperatures reached 20 to even 20.5°C. In the rest of the areas temperatures were also considerably high, between 17 to 20.5°C. The second decade of May as similar, temperatures reached 19 to 20.5°C. Only in the north of the country it was slightly colder, 16.5 to 19°C.

In May precipitation varied significantly, from very scarce (20-30 mm) in Lubusz Land, Greater Poland Lake District and Podlasie, to very intense (60-100 mm) rainfalls in Lesser Poland Upland. In the vast majority of the country precipitation was 10-50% lower than the norm. In Lubusz Land and the central part of Pomeranian Lake District precipitation in May constituted 30-50% of the norm, while in the Lesser Poland Upland it was even 90-110%.

In the first decade of June precipitation varied across the country, from very low in the east of Poland (below 5 to 10 mm) to considerably high in the west and south of the country (10 to more than 50 mm). In the second decade precipitation was very scarce (up to 5 mm) or there was even a complete lack of rainfall in the north of the country. In the south of Poland precipitation ranged from 5 to 50 mm (especially in the south-eastern part of the country).

April, May and the two decades of June were characterised by particularly high temperatures and insolation (especially in the north of the country). The values of the abovementioned meteorological factors were considerably higher than multiannual norms. At the same time precipitation in this period was considerably low, which caused even bigger decrease of CWB values meaning there was severe water deficiency for plants. It should be mentioned that drought occurs now in 14 groups and species of monitored crops. In this reporting period it appeared in the following crops: legumes (fabacea), ground vegetables, tobacco, maize for grain and maize for silage, hops, potato and sugar beet.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Aleksander Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadaw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska